A list of threatened and endangered species is compiled in order to alert people of the species possible extinction. These lists help protect these species. Originally consisting of more than 185,000 acres in the Klamath Basin of southern Oregon and northern California, and the Fall home of approximately one million waterbirds (including American White Pelicans, Double-Crested Cormorants, and 433 other species of Pacific Flyway birds,) the Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuge Complex possesses six National Wildlife Refuge areas that protect the region's grassy meadows, rocky cliffs, slopes, coniferous forests, sagebrush, juniper grasslands, freshwater marshes, open waters, shallow lakes, and agricultural lands. Located in southwestern Klamath County, Oregon, and established in 1978, the 4,200 acre Bear Valley National Wildlife Refuge's old growth ponderosa pine, incense cedar, and Douglas, and White fir trees protect the night nesting sites of as many as three hundred Bald Eagles. The Bear Valley National Wildlife Refuge also has a popular observation point for morning fly-outs of several species of birds. Found along the shores of Upper Klamath Lake in Oregon, and established in 1928, the 17,193 acres of freshwater marshes, and thirty acres of forested uplands, contained within the Upper Klamath National Wildlife Refuge protect the brooding and nesting areas of Bald Eagles, American White Pelicans, ospreys, and an assortment of herons. The Upper Klamath National Wildlife Refuge also provides a year around, nine and a half mile
long, self-guided canoe trail through Crystal Creek, Recreation Creek, Malone Springs, Wocus Cut,
and Rocky Point for visitors that want to explore the refuge. Located in Moduc County, California, established in 1911, possessing approximately twenty thousand acres of open water, and about twenty-six thousand acres of low sagebrush, juniper habitat, upland bunchgrass, and small rocky islands the Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuge is the home of a variety of birds including American White Pelicans and Double-Crested Cormorants. Mule deer, sage grouse, and pronghorn antelope can also be observed in the Clear Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Found south of Klamath Falls, Oregon, in northern California, and established in 1928, the Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge's 39,116 acres of open waters and croplands, 17,000 farmed acres, and 1,900 acres of alfalfa, potatoes, and cereal grains provide a major food source for the refuge's water birds, Bald Eagles, Golden Eagles, White-Faced Ibis, American White Pelicans, Canadian Geese, Peregrine Falcons, Western Grebes, Black Terns, Tri-Colored Blackbirds, and other species. The Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge also provides a ten mile long observation tour of its facilities.